UNESCO field offices: Rabat

La presse écrite indépendante en Algérie est née en 1990, dans des conditions difficiles. Plus de 100 journalistes ont été assassinés au début des années ‘90 et d’autres ont été emprisonnés. Aujourd’hui, il existe plus de 80 quotidiens dans les deux langues, arabe et français. Plusieurs quotidiens réalisent des tirages très importants, dépassant les 100 000 exemplaires/jour. 90% des journalistes travaillant dans ces médias ont moins de 45 ans et ne bénéficient pas de cycles de formation continue ou de perfectionnement.

Bien que l’on puisse considérer la presse algérienne comme...

Au Maroc, la réforme de l’audiovisuel engagée en 2004, n’a pas débouché sur le pluralisme médiatique escompté : le paysage audiovisuel demeure à ce jour restreint aux médias du pôle public et aux médias privés à caractère commercial. La suppression du monopôle de l'Etat en matière de radiodiffusion et la création de la Haute Autorité de la Communication Audiovisuelle (HACA), n’ont pas abouti à un cadre juridique garantissant la liberté d’expression et le pluralisme et la loi en vigueur ne prévoit pas l’attribution de licence pour opérer des médias audiovisuels à caractère associatif ou...

Malgré l’existence d’un environnement médiatique plutôt favorable depuis les élections en 2009 qui ont marqué le retour de la Mauritanie à un ordre constitutionnel, l’absence de structure locale de formation de journalistes, l’accès difficile et le nombre réduit de formations à l’étranger ont constitué jusqu’ici des obstacles à une formation adaptée aux besoins des professionnels des médias. L’Ecole Nationale d’Administration, créée en 1966 pour former les hauts fonctionnaires de l’Etat mauritanien, s’est ainsi vu confier la mission de créer un institut de journalisme. Depuis fin mars 2010...

Article 14 of Algeria's Information Act (no. 90-07 of April 3, 1990) provides for the freedom of all periodical publications. The abolition of the State's monopoly on print media brought in its wake a proliferation of publications. Several publications, however, are subject to the influence of political and business interests, which subverts their editorial independence. Furthermore, the State monopoly in the audio-visual sector continues to remain in force, after timid signs of opening up in 1990 and later in 1997. Although the absence of pluralism at the national level is compensated for...

For a long time, the Mauritanian audio-visual sector was dominated by the two state-run media outlets - Radio Mauritanie and Télévision de Mauritanie, but with the July 2010 adoption by the National Assembly of a draft bill on the liberalisation of the audio-visual sector, the media landscape has begun to change. However, despite a rather favourable environment, the Mauritanian media is unable to take full advantage of the available opportunities due to a lack of specialist and quality training for media professionals. Mauritania's first journalism school is still in the design phase, and...

The crucial role played by the media in strengthening the democratic process and pluralism in Tunisia since January 14, 2011, is increasingly recognised by Tunisian society in general, and by the country's political and civil-society authorities in particular. The current situation calls for journalists who are highly competent and versatile. The need has become all the more pressing with the emergence of more than 112 new publications, and temporarily, 12 new radios (including 8 regional radios) on the media landscape. Not to mention the television channels and electronic journals which...

In Tunisia, both the print press and broadcasting were tightly controlled by public authorities. The mainstream press toed the party line and authorities regularly blocked access to alternate news sources. In the wake of the January 2011 popular revolt, many journalists have been able to enjoy new-found freedoms. The new government will now be faced with the difficult task of ensuring a smooth democratic transition, involving: 1) Creating a favourable environment for the media to fulfil their democratic potential will be essential in this process. 2) Putting in place new media laws. These...

Media in Egypt occupy a highly influential position within the Arab world, and on a superficial level Egyptian journalists enjoy the right to exercise press freedom, as guaranteed within its Constitution. The reality under the governance of Hosni Mubarak however, saw the press regularly subject to restrictive laws which violated international press freedom standards. In Tunisia too, both the print press and broadcasting media were under tight government control, with President Ben Ali's authorities controlling access to news sources and ensuring online censorship. The recent popular...

In recent years, Mauritania has witnessed rapid development of its print media and audiovisual sector, with increased plurality and freedom of expression. However in spite of this favourable environment, media professionals in the country lack specialist and quality training which in turn puts particular strain on public service media due to competition within the audiovisual sector. There is also widespread discrimination against female Mauritanian journalists both in terms of their position within local media organizations and also the topics which they are chosen to report on. The aim...

In an environment where many working journalists lack specialist training and knowledge, and where many societal groups are not given a voice in the context of media, there is increased pressure on the academic world to bring about change to this negative situation in the MENA region through the delivery of quality journalism education at university level. Academic courses have the means to expose journalism students to the need for increased diversity in reporting, and a wider reflection of voices from social groups which are currently underrepresented in the media. The Media Diversity...

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