Regions: Asia and the Pacific

Based on a number of informal meetings and discussions with lecturers and students of journalism schools as well as with media practitioners and through direct observations, a clear need has emerged to strengthen and improve the quality of journalism in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. One of the entry points that can be used for this effort is journalism education, especially through the development of curricula to make it competency-based and up-to-date with new trends and challenges taking place in recent times.

Within the above context, UNESCO's Tehran Cluster Office planned...

The importance of community-access radio in promoting social and community development, basic education, and models of good governance has been widely acknowledged in the international community. According to the World Association of Community Broadcasters’ 2007 report on community radio (CR) and its social impact, this form of development communication has contributed to poverty reduction and sustainable development, fostered broader non-partisan political communication within countries (including peace building and conflict resolution), helped to engage marginalized or excluded...

Cambodia is still suffering from the effects of the genocidal Khmer Rouge regime of the 1970s and the ensuing years of civil strife. The legacy of these historical factors is manifold, but two major effects are the prevalence of a voiceless and fragmented civil society, unable or unwilling to speak up about basic rights, and the continuation of repressive or corrupt state systems. This is particularly noticeable in the constraints placed upon freedom of expression and media plurality in Cambodia. The adoption of the new penal code in 2010 potentially limits freedom of expression and...

As the illiteracy rate in the rural areas is still high, radio is the most commonly used medium of the rural people in Cambodia to receive information, with almost every family in the provinces owning a radio set. Although provincial radio stations do exist in more than 10 provinces in Cambodia, most of their programming content is relayed from the Radio Nationale Kampuchea (RNK) in Phnom Penh. Therefore, the majority of programmes do not serve the specific requirements of the community people since the information needs of provincial people are different, not least in geographical terms....

The development of the radio sector in Lao PDR is slow, especially in the northern, mountainous part of the country where radio signal cannot reach many communities. Like the rest of the country’s media sector, Lao National Radio lacks the equipment for developing radio networks. Its capacity needs to be enhanced if it is to compete with international broadcasters and growing new media.
 
Nearly 44 percent of the country’s total population (6.3 million) is regarded as a member of various minority ethnic groups. Xiengkho District, one of the 47 poorest districts of Laos, has...

The private sector print media industry in Myanmar is best characterized by its diversity, with about 400 licensed publications circulating. Of these, perhaps 100 fit into the category of news publications. There is no one single dominant player, with perhaps five to 10 large companies and many smaller operators. The private sector’s reach is however limited mostly to urban areas, particularly Yangon and Mandalay. With the government making encouraging moves towards reform, there is an acute need in Myanmar for well trained journalists to report on, and create awareness about, the...

In the last 20 years, Vietnam’s media landscape has expanded rapidly in terms of platforms, publications, journalists and audience figures. Though this represents an encouraging trend in terms of public access to information, the development has tended to be concentrated in the urban areas, with those living in remote, mountainous and ethnic minority communities being deprived of such improvement. Given this backdrop, since 2011, the Vietnamese Government has started to implement a “National Target Programme expanding information to remote, mountainous, border and islands areas” aimed at...

Southeast Asia is represented by a diverse range of countries in terms of politics, economy and culture, and a clear divergence in terms of respect and appreciation for fundamental human rights. The aforementioned diversity is also reflected in the media situation of the individual countries of the region, as found by respected international press freedom monitors. The 2010 press freedom index by Reporters Without Borders placed most of the countries in the region at the bottom quarter of the 178 countries assessed, while Freedom House concluded in its Freedom of the Press 2011 survey that...

In China, media and gender issues have come to the fore since the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995. More reports and programmes on women are now produced, helping to diversify the image of women portrayed in the media. However in spite of these improvements, media representation of women still lags behind China’s development in general. Women remain stereotyped and marginalized in the media. Even in media specifically orientated at women, the representation aspect remains a problem. The Chinese Women’s NGOs Report on Beijing+15 pointed out that “there lacks gender...

When Mongolia became a free-market democracy in the 1990s the number of media outlets drastically increased and thus so did the need for qualified journalists and media professionals. In the past ten years the number of media outlets, including newspapers, television, radio and magazines, has doubled, and the number of media employees has increased threefold. Mongolian tertiary training institutions have tried to meet this demand for qualified journalists. Currently there are 18 state and private higher educational institutions which offer journalism courses. However, the media managers...

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