Regions: Arab States

Right of access to information is considered as one of the most essential Constituents of freedom of press and media. As per the studies and annual reports issued by the Press Syndicate and the Civil Society Institutions, right of access to information is inaccessible to journalists and media professionals in Jordan. The Jordanian Constitution does not provide citizens the right of access to information, in addition to the fact that the law which guarantees the right of access to information is a restricted law which leads to making the confidentiality of information and documents is the...

The conclusion many researchers have drawn is that (for the most part) the media relegate women to marginality, silence or absence. It has been revealed to several field studies and media conferences that there are certain obvious obstacles to women's access to various communication and information sources, particularly in Upper Egypt. These include poverty, illiteracy, low levels of education and lack of time. National and local conferences about mass-media confirmed that journalists in Upper Egypt, and especially women, are in dire need for consistent systems of scientific knowledge...

During the first six months of 2012, the Palestinian Center for Development and Media Freedoms (MADA) monitored 102 violations against journalists and media outlets, of which 34 were physical attacks. In addition, over the past decade, IOF have killed 20 journalists during while they were covering various events in Palestine. Media departments at the Palestinian universities are contributing to the current situation in two ways: curricula do not include courses about local media laws or international conventions, legal standards and resolutions related to journalism. Therefore, journalists...

The Palestinian Basic Law of 2003 includes guarantees related to press freedom, media pluralism and the protection of journalists; yet these have not been accompanied by enforcement measures ensuring their respect in practice. According to Reporters without Borders, Palestine ranked 153 over 179 in the freedom of the press index. The IREX Media Sustainability Index reports that in 2008 Palestine experienced a worsening situation. Evident progress in free-press advocacy, increased professionalism, and new media businesses may be too recent to judge sustainability.

The news market in...

La presse écrite indépendante en Algérie est née en 1990, dans des conditions difficiles. Plus de 100 journalistes ont été assassinés au début des années ‘90 et d’autres ont été emprisonnés. Aujourd’hui, il existe plus de 80 quotidiens dans les deux langues, arabe et français. Plusieurs quotidiens réalisent des tirages très importants, dépassant les 100 000 exemplaires/jour. 90% des journalistes travaillant dans ces médias ont moins de 45 ans et ne bénéficient pas de cycles de formation continue ou de perfectionnement.

Bien que l’on puisse considérer la presse algérienne comme...

Au Maroc, la réforme de l’audiovisuel engagée en 2004, n’a pas débouché sur le pluralisme médiatique escompté : le paysage audiovisuel demeure à ce jour restreint aux médias du pôle public et aux médias privés à caractère commercial. La suppression du monopôle de l'Etat en matière de radiodiffusion et la création de la Haute Autorité de la Communication Audiovisuelle (HACA), n’ont pas abouti à un cadre juridique garantissant la liberté d’expression et le pluralisme et la loi en vigueur ne prévoit pas l’attribution de licence pour opérer des médias audiovisuels à caractère associatif ou...

Malgré l’existence d’un environnement médiatique plutôt favorable depuis les élections en 2009 qui ont marqué le retour de la Mauritanie à un ordre constitutionnel, l’absence de structure locale de formation de journalistes, l’accès difficile et le nombre réduit de formations à l’étranger ont constitué jusqu’ici des obstacles à une formation adaptée aux besoins des professionnels des médias. L’Ecole Nationale d’Administration, créée en 1966 pour former les hauts fonctionnaires de l’Etat mauritanien, s’est ainsi vu confier la mission de créer un institut de journalisme. Depuis fin mars 2010...

Local Palestinian journalists have struggled to respond to threats to their personal safety and journalistic integrity. The Palestinian media sphere, which has long since been dominated by partisan control and self-censorship, has become further politically polarized and driven by factions, rather than citizens’ concerns. According to Ma'an’s 2011 survey, 39% of Palestinians felt that local media negatively impacts the Palestinian internal division. At the same time, Palestinian journalists committed to independent, non-partisan coverage feel under siege from all sides, as investigative...

In the demanding regional context of the Middle East, popular movements against authoritative regimes have been empowered by media. Within the specific context of Palestine, an urgent need exists for an independent voice represented by a professional media outlet, however at present, Palestinians are faced with the difficult choice of watching partisan local news on TV which is either government affiliated or linked to the Hamas Movement. In both cases, viewers are often faced by advertising slogans, biased viewpoints and attitudes, and party politics. Wattan TV, on the other hand, has...

In Tunisia, both the print press and broadcasting were tightly controlled by public authorities. The mainstream press toed the party line and authorities regularly blocked access to alternate news sources. In the wake of the January 2011 popular revolt, many journalists have been able to enjoy new-found freedoms. The new government will now be faced with the difficult task of ensuring a smooth democratic transition, involving: 1) Creating a favourable environment for the media to fulfil their democratic potential will be essential in this process. 2) Putting in place new media laws. These...

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