Cette demande a été formulée par Getachew Engida, Directeur général adjoint de l’UNESCO, lorsqu’il a accueilli des formateurs au journalisme français et européens, des professionnels et des étudiants à la 5e édition de la conférence nationale des métiers du journalisme (CNMJ), qui a commencé aujourd’hui au siège de l’UNESCO à Paris.
Il a expliqué aux 233 participants que pour l’UNESCO, les écoles de journalisme avaient une grande responsabilité dans un monde où la liberté d’expression et la sécurité des journalistes sont constamment menacés. À ce propos, la formation au journalisme est un sujet de débat essentiel lors des réunions mondiales préparant l’agenda pour le développement post-2015, dans lequel la liberté d’expression est perçue comme un prérequis pour l’innovation journalistique.
Getachew Engida a ajouté que « C’est dans cet esprit que l’année passée, l’UNESCO a lancé 10 nouveaux modules de spécialisation au journalisme dans les Programmes modèles d’enseignement du journalisme : Recueil de nouveaux manuels »
Il a rappelé aux participants que l’Initiative mondiale pour l’excellence de l’enseignement du journalisme lancée par l’UNESCO pouvait leur servir de référence pour collaborer avec l’Organisation des Nations Unies pour atteindre les objectifs de l’initiative : une excellence mondiale partagée en matière de pratique, d’enseignement et de recherche du journalisme.
M. Engida a également informé l’assemblée que l’UNESCO venait de publier un rapport sur les tendances mondiales en matière de liberté d’expression et de développement des médias. Il a ensuite ajouté que l’Organisation travaillait actuellement sur une étude complète des questions liées à Internet, dont les résultats seraient diffusés au mois de mars. Il a invité les participants à la conférence à contribuer aux débats suscités par les résultats de ces tendances mondiales et de cette étude sur Internet.
Cette conférence a fait intervenir d’autres acteurs médiatiques : Fleur Pellerin (Ministre française de la culture et de la communication), Jean-Marie Charon (président de la CNMJ), Pascal Guénée (Institut pratique du journalisme de Paris-Dauphine), Christina Agren (SVT, télévision suédoise), Marco Garcia Rey (Université de Madrid) et Susan Fearn (BBC Academy).
La CNMJ est un espace de dialogue ouvert et de débat pour les formateurs au journalisme et les professionnels. Mise en place en 2010, elle accueille les représentants de 14 écoles de journalisme françaises reconnues ainsi que des formateurs, des associations professionnelles, des autorités publiques, des chercheurs et d’autres parties prenantes qualifiées.
Cette 5e édition de la conférence est unique car elle permet une plus grande inclusion des formateurs au journalisme européens et aux professionnels. Elle s’illustre donc comme un événement paneuropéen.
UNESCO launches a call for proposals for a documentary film production on freedom of expression in the Arab region
This documentary film will aim at communicating to the donors, stakeholders, the media and the wider public on this specific project and will be uploaded on UNESCO Extra-budgetary website. The film will be produced in English and Arabic, in both long and short version (9 films of 2-5 minutes each for the following countries: Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, Syria, Jordan, Morocco, Lebanon, Yemen and South Sudan). Versions provided should be compatible with Internet and TV screening.
Through activities at the international, regional and national level, the project addresses the needs of each country depending on national priorities under the areas of media self-regulation, independence and plurality; ICT policies and universal access to the Internet; the role of women and youth in shaping viable and sustainable democracies, among other major evolving priorities. The actions implemented build upon existing local and regional networks in partnership with other organizations and groups advocating for freedom of expression and media freedom and with all relevant actors, including governments.
Interested production companies or teams of consultants should study in detail the terms of reference provided, then submit the concept notes (technical and financial proposals) indicating the following:
- how they propose to undertake the assignment,
- cost in US dollars,
- 2-page curriculum vitae of all team members,
- three most recent CDs/DVDs,
- at least four previous clients and their email and telephone contacts, and
- statement of capability.
Applications should be sent by 30 October 2014 to the address below:
Ms Maaly Hazzaz
Section for Freedom of Expression
Communication and Information Sector
7, Place de Fontenoy
Or by email to: m.hazzaz(at)unesco.org with links included and no attachments.
You can read the complete call for proposals here.
UNESCO session at the International Council on Archives Congress focused on digital documentary heritage
The events were grouped under a common title: Archives and Cultural Industries, in order to foster debate on a key issue for archives: the potential for the documentation that has been preserved in them to be a resource provider for the creation and consumption of culture and knowledge among the population.
Archives around the world house a tremendous amount of documentary heritage, such as textual, graphic, photographic and audiovisual documents that represent the collective memory of humanity. The digitization of collections of documents has allowed the creation of multiple cultural resources accessible through the Internet and other communication networks that can be a focal point of interest to consumers and businesses. There is a great potential of this documentation to meet the growing needs of consumers.
The congress participants discussed innovative strategies to be established in both the treatment and organization of documentation and its dissemination and exploitation, in legal ways that respect intellectual property rights, and which ultimately reassess the role of archives in the Knowledge Society.
The Conference discussions focused on these issues from three perspectives:
- The perspective of content: How should collections of documents be organized, described, digitized and disseminated to facilitate access and enhance their heritage value;
- The perspective of cultural industries: What aret the new businesses dealing with the creation and distribution of digital content and how can collaboration between the public and private sectors be articulated to advance business creation;
- The perspective of general population: What are its interests and cultural consumption habits, and what future trends may arise.
The UNESCO-ICA session within the framework of the Congress, focused on the problem of preservation challenges of digital heritage. It is one of the challenging subjects within the PERSIST project (Platform to Enhance the Sustainability of the Information Society Transglobally), an initiative of UNESCO, ICA, IFLA and other partners, which aims to enhance the sustainability and long-term accessibility of digital heritage. The project assumes that on these issues a high-level global policy discussion is needed between heritage institutions, industry and government, and that UNESCO’s Memory of the World Programme is a unique platform that could facilitate this process. The idea for PERSIST was born at the Conference The Memory of the World in the Digital Age: Digitisation and Preservation in Vancouver (September 2012).
The panellists pointed to the threat of obsolescence to digital information as being twofold, since there is a risk of obsolescence to both the hardware and the software. What increases that threat is the speed with which technology is changing. Another danger that threatens digital technology is cost. The preservation of digital material is a continual process, and to the initial cost of digitizing must be added additional costs for migrating data every five or ten years, if not more often. Another concern is the fact that too few professionals are still unaware of the economic burden of digital preservation in the overall management of their library. The need to preserve digital documents is of equal importance, and this essential work is now beginning to be taken seriously by the interested stakeholders.
Discussion focused also on electronic documents as being often considered as two distinct groups: digitized copies of original printed or written documents, and works which have no print original, often called born-digital works. The preservation policies concerning the two groups may be different, especially where the original document which has been digitized is also being preserved. On the other hand, born-digital works may also require special preservation measures as they are unique.
Panellists pointed out to migration of information as one of the preservation measures currently advocated to preserve electronic publications, but it raises technical challenges, together with problems of staff resources and financial implications.
The UNESCO representative, Ms Iskra Panevska from the Memory of the World Programme, stressed that “UNESCO’s interest in safeguarding, preserving and disseminating the world’s cultural and documentary heritage is as fundamental as its constitution with its mandate to contribute to building peace through the spread of knowledge. With regard to digital heritage, she went on to emphasize that “the need to safeguard this relatively new form of documentary heritage calls for international consensus on its collection, preservation and dissemination which resulted first in the adoption of the 2003 UNESCO Charter on the Preservation of the Digital Heritage and the convening of the UNESCO Memory of the World in the Digital Age Vancouver conference in 2012. More recently, on the request of its Member States, UNESCO has elaborated a draft Recommendation on preservation of, and access to documentary heritage, including in digital form. She added that “due to the ephemeral nature of digital information a continuous and active management for its long term preservation and accessibility is essential, and development of digital preservation best practices, methods, tools, systems, and infrastructural setup including trusted and sustainable digital repositories are required”.
The National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) is an Open and Distance Learning (ODL) institution, the first of its kind in the West African sub-region. The University at present has 54 Centres spread across the country. It is Nigeria's largest tertiary institution with over 150,000 enrolled students.
The Workshop at NOUN is part of the African component of the Globalizing OpenupEd Project, which aims to empower key national higher education institutions to offer courses with full open licenses (OERs), and to transform them into Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs).
Open Educational Resources (OERs) are defined as any type of educational materials in the public domain, or released with an open license allowing free use, adaptation, and distribution. They present educational institutions with a strategic opportunity to increase the quality of educational materials.
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are characterized as free-of-cost, openly-accessible, online courses which can support ‘massive’ numbers of students.
By transforming OER courses into MOOCs that can be accessed free-of-cost and easily via mobile phones, NOUN hopes to ‘massively’ increase the number of enrolments from Nigeria, Africa and internationally.
OpenupEd is the world’s first MOOC Initiative that offers learners several unique innovations:
- courses are to be made immediately/progressively available as OERs with at least CC BY SA licenses;
- the University partners will offer full recognition and additional credit for fees;
- some courses are to offer cohort-independence.
The Project is led by Abel Caine, UNESCO Programme Specialist in OERs, and Professor Fred Mulder, UNESCO OER Chair.
With support from the European Commission, UNESCO is globalizing OpenupEd in Africa working with the Africa Council for Distance Education (ACDE), and in Asia working with the Asian Association for Open Universities (AAOU).
The Workshop was facilitated by Dr Robert Schuwer of the Open University of the Netherlands. Using extensive OER and MOOC models, the delegates identified 10 pilot courses to be updated and offered with the Creative Commons Attribution (BY) ShareAlike (SA) license. A new course on the History of NOUN will be the pilot MOOC.
Abel Caine, from UNESCO, was very pleased with the Workshop, “NOUN is one of the very few universities worldwide to freely share their intellectual wealth with a Portal of all their courses. They are now extending this gift with open licenses to allow other universities to freely and legally use the NOUN materials.”
NOUN extended a great honour to the UNESCO Team allowing Mr Caine and Professor Fred Mulder to present the NOUN Senate comprising of over 100 academics on Tuesday 10 September.
The medium-term goal is to launch the Africa OpenupEd Initiative with at least 3 African universities offering fully open-licensed MOOCs by the seminal World Education Forum in Incheon, South Korea, in May 2015.
The 16th annual meeting of the Alliance of Independent Press Councils in Europe (AIPCE) took place on 9 and 10 October in Brussels in collaboration with the European Commission. The meeting discussed the future of this network of independent media regulators, which has been facing new challenges related to the growing numbers of its participants.
The participation of South East European Press Councils enabled them to share experiences and best practices with well-established European press councils and to get first-hand information about the know-how of running such bodies.
During the conference, Robert Madelin, Director General of the DG Connect stressed the importance of self-regulation mechanisms for media freedom and the role of press councils to enhance media professional standards at the local level.
In a specific workshop with the representatives from the DG of Enlargement in the European Commission, Liljana Zurovac, Head of the Press Council in Bosnia and Herzegovina, spoke of the common challenges faced by press councils in South East Europe and how these could be addressed through the recently established regional network of cooperation. Andris Kesteris, principal adviser for DG Enlargement presented the Guidelines for the EU support to media freedom and media integrity in enlargement countries 2014-2020 and emphasized that the strategy to support press councils will stay as a top priority for the EU.
The representatives were supported as part the EU-UNESCO project: “Media Accountability in South East Europe” which started in January 2013. This project aims to strengthen press councils in the region, as these have proven to be essential safeguards of media freedom. By ensuring respect for codes of ethics and by dealing with readers and viewers’ complaints, press councils help media professionals to better protect themselves from informal economic and political pressures while winning the confidence of media consumers.
The main goals of this contest is to raise awareness of the issues of impunity for crimes against journalists as well as to create visually creative and educational material which can be shared through social media networks.
Journalists and media workers face dangerous challenges every day and pay a heavy toll in the pursuit of their profession: one journalist loses his/her life per week on average. According to the new UNESCO Director-General’s report on the Safety of Journalists and the Danger of Impunity, nine out of ten cases of the killing of journalists and media workers remain unsolved.
When the attacks on journalists are not investigated and the perpetrators not brought to justice, a climate of impunity sets in. Over time, the chilling consequence of impunity will have a drastic negative effect on freedom of expression and the health of rule of law in a democratic society. Together with its international partners, UNESCO is at the forefront in promoting safety of journalists and ending impunity as well as condemning every killing of a media professional in the line of duty.
The winner of the infographic contest will receive USD 2000.00 and have his or her winning design featured on UNESCO’s website. Please visit Visual.ly’s webpage for more contest information. Applications are due by Friday 17 October 2014.
The three-day event will be complemented with lectures by leading national and international experts on the preservation of documentary heritage in Mexico and the international value of the Palafoxiana Library. A session will also be held to discuss the Programme’s new submissions at regional level.
To proceed with the annual selection of documents, or sets of documents, from archives, libraries, audiovisual collections to be enrolled in the 2014 Memory of the World Register for Latin America and the Caribbean, MOWLAC members and expert partners will hold a private session in the afternoon of 16 October.
Ms Nuria Sanz, Director of the UNESCO Office in Mexico, said on that occasion, “Documentary heritage is a social resource and a permanent source of knowledge. The international academic community of experts in Latin America should be further supported institutionally in their work."
This year MOWLAC has received a total of 23 nominations from 11 countries in the region, namely from: Barbados, Brazil, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, St Kitts, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela. Dr Boyan Radoykov, Chief of the Section for Universal Access and Preservation, Knowledge Societies Division, UNESCO, underscores that "this is an unprecedented number which confirms the great importance the Latin American and Caribbean region gives to the preservation of, and the access to, its documentary heritage and confirms the great value of the Memory of the World Programme, whose main objectives will also result in the first-ever international normative instrument covering these important issues, which is currently in the process of elaboration by UNESCO".
A new publication, in Spanish, will be launched at the meeting. It is entitled Proteger y promover el Conocimiento Global Registrado (Protect and promote the Registered Global Knowledge).
UNESCO launched the Memory of the World Programme in 1992 to guard against collective amnesia calling upon the preservation of the valuable archive holdings and library collections all over the world ensuring their wide dissemination. The Programme is intended to protect documentary heritage, and helps networks of experts to exchange information and raise resources for preservation of, and access to, documentary materials.
The event will provide a forum for discussion and exchange of experiences between international and national media practitioners and experts, civil society representatives, academics and representatives of state institutions from Macedonia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Turkey and Kosovo (under UNSCR 1244). Topics will include the right to access information, data journalism, privacy and the protection of journalists’ sources, self-regulation and standards of quality reporting. A session will also be dedicated to opinion making in times of conflict and will discuss the lessons of the media war on Ukraine.
Within this forum, SEEMO will present their prestigious Investigative Journalism Award.
Prior to the Forum, UNESCO, together with the Macedonian Institute for Media, will organize an event to present the new press council in Macedonia, and discuss the perspectives and challenges for this media self-regulation organization, the youngest in the region.
These activities are organized in partnership with a number of international, regional and local partners, including the European Union, Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, the Central European Initiative, the Macedonian Institute for Media and others.
UNESCO’s consultation with governments from across the world will take the form of a global survey. The finding of the survey will be summarized in a global report which will serve three main purposes:
- gather, analyze and distribute empirical data on progress towards achieving Strategic Objective J, relating to media and gender, of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (BDPfA) from the stand point of government actions;
- raise awareness of the topic among Member States and make recommendations as to how media and ICTs can be integrated into national gender policies and strategies, and
- contribute to the 20-year review of the BDPfA.
The survey questionnaire draws on key action items as set forth in the BDPfA as well as relevant indicators of the Gender-Sensitive Indicators for Media resource published by UNESCO. The questionnaire is divided into seven short sections:
- Existence of government programmes and budget related to gender and media
- Policy, legal, regulatory framework and monitoring
- Employment and career development
- Education, training and skills building
- Public awareness and dialogue
- Gender in media content
UNESCO is working closely with National Commissions for UNESCO around the world to coordinate response to the questionnaire which can be viewed on this link.
Governments, civil society actors and media representatives met in Beijing from 4 to 15 September 1995 for the Fourth World Conference on Women. Governments expressed their determination to advance the goals of equality, development and peace for all women everywhere in the interest of all humanity. The conference adopted the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (BDPfA), which consists of twelve strategic objectives and actions.
One of these objectives is concerned with the increase of women’s participation in media and technology and the elimination of gender related stereotypes in the media. This objective is an intersection of the UNESCO Priority Gender Equality and the Organization’s mandate to promote free, independent and pluralistic media.
There are two seminal global studies in recent times which address gender and media issues. These are the Global Media Monitoring Project and the Global Report on the Status of Women in the News Media.
Many governments have implemented programmes and policies in line with the Women and the Media strategic objective of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. However, there is no comprehensive and collective report in this respect. This global survey undertaken by UNESCO in cooperation with its Member States addresses this research gap.
Research is one aspect of the UNESCO global strategy to promote gender equality in and through the media. Other interventions include: 1) building the capacity of journalists and media organizations based on the UNESCO Gender-Sensitive Indicators, 2) policy advocacy through the Woman Make the News initiative, 3) fostering partnerships for systematic follow-up of the gender and media objective of the BDPfA through the pioneering Global Alliance on Media and Gender, 4) capacity building for girls and boys to advocate for gender equality through online media and information literacy courses, 5) promoting the safety of women journalists and launch of a university network on media and gender for further research.
In Somalia, physical threats or harm committed against journalists are manifested in various forms: assassinations, imprisonment, physical abuse, attack and harassment. SIMHA organized the training within the framework of its role as advocate for the rights of media houses. The training targeting editors intended to raise awareness of editors on the measures that can be taken to reduce violence against journalists. The training also looked at best practices to help journalists in covering civil disturbances. The Minister of Information Mustafa Ali Duhulow, speaking at the opening of the training, said that “conducting such training is priceless”. “Radio and other media outlets must be aware about security issues in the places where journalists are sent,” he added.
The representatives of the media reiterated that professionalism of the press cannot be guaranteed while it is under threat of violence. One participant noted that a just society highly depends on the media for sustainable development and equality for all, while discussing the difficult conditions in which Somalia journalists operate. Participants were introduced to recorded training lessons from the Committee to Protect Journalists on safety of journalists.
UNESCO gives special attention to the safety of journalists and combating impunity of crimes and abuses against them. Since endorsing the Declarations of Windhoek, Alma Ata and Santiago, UNESCO has recognized that a media system should be free, pluralistic and independent if press freedom and freedom of expression are to be upheld.
Like all other institutions of higher education, schools of journalism need to constantly think in collective terms, regardless of their discipline or level, in the ways they deliver quality training to young people across the globe.
Such cooperation includes rethinking the very nature of the assessment of individual performance, says Jean-Pierre Benghozi of the Management Research Center of the Ecole Polytechnique, as he summed up the conclusions of the just ended 5th edition of the conférence nationale des métiers du journalisme (CNMJ), which ran from 2 to 3 October at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris.
In many ways, individual performance assessment misses seeing the extent to which students need to be prepared for a collaborative media production environment.
In this regard, the Guardian’s experience of collaborative news production was offered as a model of how students would need to face up to the reality of treating the readership as a “content editor, an expert, a checker, a relay and even a diffuser”.
Following on from last year’s conference, also held at the UNESCO headquarters, the focus this year was on comparing French and other European experiences in training innovation.
With this in mind, the conference participants heard from editors representing the BBC, Swedish TV, and the Guardian as well as trainers from the universities of Neuchatel, Leuven and Madrid.
The conference also focused on the place and role of young journalists in strategies for processing editorial content, organization and operations of the newsroom. A survey focusing on how young people “imagined” their future journalistic careers was presented.
A key finding of the study was that the practices in training journalism students bore the mark of their previous education, often emphasizing the traditional disciplines of history, literature and the primacy of writing, with very few references to ICT-driven skills in mobile and other forms of digital journalism.
A political addition to the conference was that the new Minister of Culture and Communication, Ms Fleur Pellerin, took time to have lunch with the 14 accredited French schools of journalism. Together, they reflected on the wide-ranging changes influencing the journalism profession, including the adequacy of training programmes to address these changes.
La sécurité des journalistes et l’impunité tiennent une grande place dans la nouvelle résolution votée par le Conseil des droits de l’homme
La délégation autrichienne, principal commanditaire du projet de résolution, a dénoncé le fait que la majorité des cas d’attaques et de violences contre les journalistes restaient impunis, dans la mesure où les auteurs de ces crimes jouissent d’une totale impunité. La vulnérabilité des journalistes, qui deviennent les cibles d’une surveillance illégale et arbitraire, d’une interception de leurs communications, violant ainsi leurs droits à la confidentialité et leur liberté d’expression a également soulignée.
Cette résolution appelle les États à développer et appliquer des stratégies pour combattre l’impunité des attaques et des violences contre les journalistes. Ces stratégies permettront la mise en place de services d’enquête ou des commissions indépendantes, l’affectation d’un procureur spécial, la formation des procureurs et du personnel judiciaire et l’élaboration de dispositifs de collecte de données et d’un mécanisme de réaction rapide. Elle reconnaît également l’importance de la question de la sécurité des journalistes à travers le processus d’examen périodique universel.
Cette résolution rappelle également le rôle de l’UNESCO pour assurer la sécurité des journalistes et appelle les États membres et toutes les parties prenantes concernées à coopérer pour mettre en place le Plan d’action des Nations Unies sur la sécurité des journalistes et la question de l’impunité, soutenu par l’UNESCO.
Guy Berger, Directeur de la section de l’UNESCO pour la liberté d’expression et le développement des médias, s’est exprimé lors d’un événement parallèle à la 27e réunion du Conseil des droits de l’homme qui s’est déroulée quelques jours plus tôt. À l’occasion de cette manifestation organisée par l’ONG Article 19, il a affirmé que la lutte contre l’impunité concordait parfaitement avec la déclaration finale des Objectifs de développement durable (ODD) fixés lors de l’Assemblée générale des Nations Unies. Par ailleurs, en intégrant explicitement la protection des journalistes dans les ODD, un fort message a été envoyé au monde entier pour faire comprendre que la violence ne sera tolérée dans aucune autre instance sociale.
Cette résolution concorde avec la commémoration par la communauté internationale de la première Journée internationale pour mettre fin à l’impunité des crimes contre les journalistes le 2 novembre. Cette journée a été votée par l’Assemblée générale des Nations Unies en 2013. À l’occasion de cette journée, l’UNESCO et ses partenaires organisent une série d’événements destinés à attirer l’attention sur le problème de l’impunité et ses impacts dévastateurs sur la société.
L’UNESCO convie toutes les organisations de la société civile au Maroc afin de promouvoir la liberté d’information
À cette occasion, l’UNESCO a collaboré avec les organisations du Réseau marocain pour le droit d’accès à l’information (REMDI) afin de mieux faire connaître ce droit à l’opinion publique et en particulier aux jeunes du Maroc.
Intitulée « mobiliser l’art pour accéder à l’information », la célébration de cette année a proposé un espace d’expression sous toutes ses formes comme la peinture, la musque, le rap, le théâtre et des questionnaires pour illustrer et diffuser les principes et les moyens de jouir du droit de savoir au Maroc. À cette occasion, le bureau de l’UNESCO à Rabat a lancé une vidéo promotionnelle sur la liberté d’information, qui servira de support à une grande campagne au Maroc.
Le REMDI a également profité de cette occasion pour rappeler aux autorités marocaines les dispositions de l’article 27 de la Constitution, qui garantit le droit d’accès à l’information pour tous les citoyens et la nécessité de promulguer une loi dans ce même but. Lors d’une déclaration, les organisations de la société civile ont élaboré une première analyse du projet de loi 31.13, publié sur le site du gouvernement en juillet 2014.
L’organisation de cet événement a été rendue possible grâce au soutien du gouvernement de Finlande.
Pour plus d’informations, vous pouvez consulter :
The meeting gathered GFMD members as well as international media support organizations and advocacy leaders who are active in the region. Participants discussed the UNESCO report as well as the Post 2015 Development Agenda. Remaining challenges that independent media face in view of social and political events that are shaping the Eurasia region such as the digital switchover, the shrinking space for Internet freedom and regional trends of media development were also debated.
UNESCO publication, World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development, offers a new look at recent evolutions in media freedom, independence, pluralism and journalist safety. The report also includes six regional overviews, one of them focusing on Central and Eastern Europe.
While discussing the Central and Eastern European regional trends participants reiterated that the region is very diverse, thus it is difficult to single out trends, which are the same in all 25 countries. Nevertheless it was noticed that the momentum of progress has slowed with the past six years, seeing a shift to stasis or decline of media freedom rather than improvement.
At the same time, there also has been a visible trend towards improving media legislation, particularly the decriminalization of defamation and access to information, to bring it in line with international standards. However implementation remained to be problematic and impunity has remained common. Propaganda replacing journalism was mentioned as one of the key treats to the development of media based on principles of independence, pluralism and freedom.
During the discussion participants concurred with the conclusions of the regional overview of Central and Eastern Europe that recent economic crisis has negatively influenced the media. The rapid spread of the Internet and social media has broadened opportunities to enjoy media freedom, even as it has resulted in increased pressure against online journalists through digital control.
The meeting has been organized by the Association of Independent Broadcasters of Ukraine, Free Press Unlimited, and the Global Forum for Media Development (GFMD) with the support of The Open Society Foundations and the European Endowment for Democracy.